Chapter 53 BWV 51 Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen
Shout joy for God in every land.
For soprano solo.
For the fifteenth Sunday after Trinity.
This work is known to have been performed around 1730 but was probably composed some time earlier. Dürr (p 540) notes that the designation for the fifteenth Sunday after Trinity was added at a later time. Consequently, comparisons with the two earlier cantatas for this day are likely to be meaningless.
There is certainly little that would seem to relate C 51 to the discursive and embryonic chorale cantata C 138 from the first cycle or the fully established chorale/fantasia, C 99, from the second. Even the traditional four-part closing chorale is not to be found in C 51; the chorale melody is sung by the soprano to the accompaniment of rousing strings, concluding with a series of Alleluias.
What the original function of this work may have been, therefore, remains conjectural. Whether, as Dürr and others have suggested it was composed for a female rather than a boy soprano and whether that person may have been Anna Magdalena Bach herself, continues to be a teasing puzzle. Certainly, the joyousness of the cantata precludes its use at a funeral, celebratory events such as a wedding or birthday being the most probable source of the original inspiration.
This remains one of Bach′s most enduringly popular cantatas as well as one of the more difficult to perform; it requires an exceptionally good soprano with a wide range, as well as a very able trumpeter. It must have sounded extraordinarily exhilarating to eighteenth century audiences and it has lost none of its vitality or animation today. Indeed, many Bach lovers are likely to know it even if their general familiarity with the cantata repertoire is scanty.
The opening movement begins with a typically ‘masculine’ fanfare figure played, in octaves, on trumpet, strings and continuo. As early as bar 2 it diffuses into harmony, trumpet and first violins carrying the extrovert repeated-note idea, supported by the lower strings and a striding quaver continuo.
Much use is made of both figurations to support the vocal line, itself less focussed in detailed motivic development than is usually the case. Its flowing, scalic movements serve joint functions: it conveys the joy of shouting God′s praises and demands of the musicians a virtuosity with which they may revel.
Bach′s setting of this text is somewhat idiosyncratic. When the music has clearly definable structural divisions we often find him allocating particular lines of the text to each. Thus in a da capo movement, the A section may deal with the first 2-3 lines and the B section with those that remain. In this case the A section has only the first line to declaim—-Shout joy for God in all lands. The B section emerges from bar 39 taking us, as expected, through related keys of Am, Em and G major and carrying the next seven lines of text—-all creatures in heaven and earth must, as we now do, present our offerings to the God who protects us in times of trouble.
But before this segment is complete Bach returns to the opening idea, having it emerge, mid-phrase, from bar 63. There is a reprise, of sorts, of the A section from bar 67 but by now the soprano is in mid flow, her elegant line unimpeded by the constraints of traditional formal structuring!
There is no obvious distinction between these two sections; the inevitable surging of the music simply transcends conventional boundaries.
The recitative also has its surprises. Initially it is an expression of worship of God′s house from which place His ever refreshed fidelity continues to reward us. Despite the upbeat nature of this sentiment, Bach sets it in the minor mode against a distinctly plodding string accompaniment. There is, perhaps, an earnest and resolute message here, possibly of daily ritual and dreary but essential repetition.
On each occasion the melodic shapes suggest utterances of weakness and the waywardness of stammering. The latter is pictorially represented by the two rhythmically disjointed melismas on—-lallen, to slur (bars 12-13 and 19-20).
The third movement is the least extrovert of the three arias, still minor with only the continuo supporting the voice. The 12/8 time signature, however, has little of the idyllic pastoral character which it often implies. Lacking an obbligato instrument, the steady quavers of the continuo are particularly evident as they imply confidence and assurance—-Children of the Lord that we are, we demonstrate, through the leading of pious and dutiful lives, our gratitude to Him as He daily renews His goodness. The opening ritornello has the distinct feeling of a ground bass but Bach develops it with a greater degree of freedom.
The form of this movement is appropriately conventional for the expression of conformist and traditional notions—an A-B-A ternary structure is encased within a ritornello template. The B section begins in bar 18 and the A section is reprised from bar 37.
Several details are worthy of notice. The vocal line begins with an octave drop articulating the word Höchster—-Highest—-heard only twice in the whole aria (bars 3 and 37).The continuo line bears a sense of continually rising as if to suggest the eyes of the pious fixed towards the Highest Throne; it breaks its pattern of continuous quavers in only two places, (from bars 12 and 46). At these points the three-note figure of joy is adopted into the melody as a reflection of the delight which may be gained from the daily renewal of the Divine goodness—-Güte. The two extended melismas (bars 22-23 and again in 30) lay stress upon the fact that we are named or designated as the children of the Highest One, something to be both acknowledged and thankful for.
There is a quiet certainty of faith underpinning this movement. No rejoicing trumpets or horns are required for the most profound expression of commitment to God. Three instruments and two melodic lines are all that Bach requires for this moving and insightful depiction of personal devotion.
The standard division of violins into two groups returns for the fourth and final movement, the trumpet reappearing about half way through. The overall shape of the cantata is clear, the outer, boldly extrovert movements encompassing two which are more thoughtful and introspective. The closing chorale is not dispensed with but, possibly because of a lack of available singers at the original performance, now becomes an integral part of this final aria. Its melody dictates the proportions and shape of the movement but not its character. That task is given to the violins and continuo creating, with the voice, a fulsome four-part texture.
The text continues the theme of praising and honouring the Trinity, God, Son and Holy Spirit, almost certainly determining the symbolic 3/4 time signature—-we trust in Him, build upon and cling to Him and sing both of these things and of what might be achieved through continued faith. The mode is major, the mood ebulliently joyful, violins imitating each other in their depiction of blissful eulogy. Did Bach think of the four melodic lines as representing the three parts of the Holy Trinity encompassing the human soul? Perhaps the soul is specifically represented by the chorale melody and its text surrounded, or one might almost say even engulfed, by the highly active strings!
The structure is akin to that of the chorale fantasia but with just one vocal line instead of four. The chorale phrases are separated by the continuous instrumental currents which never appear inhibited by the actuality of having to encompass a refrain which is melodically, tonally and rhythmically restricted. Bach, typically, turns this to his advantage as the chorale shines through the general euphoria with a simplicity and constancy that had been originally suggested, but through quite different musical processes, in the previous movement.
The cantata was, however, appears to have been conceived as a vehicle for a virtuoso soloist who obviously cannot shine if allotted only the barest of melodies. Consequently, instead of completing the movement as might be expected at bar 118 Bach adds a coda of Beethovian proportions, extending 118 bars to a total of 226! He changes the time signature (and possibly the tempo) and the full upper string complement (including violas) returns. The one word set is Alleluja, not a part of the chorale text, and obviously grafted on so as to provide the singer with his/her stunning virtuosic conclusion.
The trumpet now imitates the singer′s opening four-bar phrase, soon to be thrown back and forth amongst the upper strings. The effect is fugal without Bach needing to feel inhibited by its formal constraints. The long flowing melismas leave one literally breathless with the sheer pleasure in, and energy generated through, the relationship with God. The general structure of this exhilarating movement now might remind us of the first chorus from C 4, a similar exposition of a chorale melody also erupting in a cascade of Allelujas.
Students might also like to look back on C 110, the opening chorus of which has a text very similar to that of the first movement of this cantata—-let our mouths be charged with laughter and Praise for the One who has done so much for us. There, these sentiments are conveyed through the medium of a large orchestra and full four-part choir. In C 51 Bach creates an equally ebullient but smaller scale, personal expression of fundamentally the same convictions, using as few as only seven or eight musicians.
The medium becomes almost irrelevant; Bach delivers his message with total conviction whatever the restrictions of resources placed upon him might have been.
Copyright: J Mincham 2010. Revised 2012, 2014, 2017, 2020.